19th May - Tudor Queen Anne Boleyn is executed in 1523. Mughal Queen Mariam-uz-Zamani "Jodhaa Bai" dies after reigning for 43 years in 1623.
Byzantine Empresses [2/5] Theodora // Θεοδώρα
Theodora was empress of the Byzantine Empire and the wife of Emperor Justinian I. She was one of the more influential and powerful empresses of Rome. Some sources mention her as empress regnant with Justinian I as her co-regent. She proved herself a worthy and able leader during the Nika riots. Unable to control the mob, Justinian and his officials prepared to flee. At a meeting of the government council, Theodora spoke out against leaving the palace and underlined the significance of someone who died as a ruler instead of living as an exile or in hiding, saying, “royal purple is noblest shroud”.
Following the Nika revolt, Justinian and Theodora rebuilt and reformed Constantinople and made it the most splendid city the world had seen for centuries, building or rebuilding aqueducts, bridges and more than twenty five churches. The greatest of these is Hagia Sophia, considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and one of the architectural wonders of the world.
Theodora participated in Justinian’s legal and spiritual reforms, and her involvement in the increase of the rights of women was substantial. She had laws passed that prohibited forced prostitution and closed brothels. She created a convent on the Asian side of the Dardanelles called the Metanoia (Repentance), where the ex-prostitutes could support themselves. She also expanded the rights of women in divorce and property ownership, instituted the death penalty for rape, forbade exposure of unwanted infants, gave mothers some guardianship rights over their children, and forbade the killing of a wife who committed adultery. Procopius wrote that she was naturally inclined to assist women in misfortune.
TODAY IN HISTORY: 22 August 1485, Battle of Bosworth
Henry Tudor had a force of about 5000 men while Richard’s army probably was nearer 12,000. However, 4,000 of these soldiers belonged to the Stanley family and no one was sure if the Stanley’s could be trusted. It is thought that Richard did not trust Lord Stanley as he had a reputation of fighting for whoever he felt was going to be the most generous in victory. For Richard it was to be a shrewd judgement of character – and one that led to his death.
The fighting began early in the morning of August 22nd. The two Stanley armies stayed away from the actual fighting at this stage so that the contest was literally a battle between Richard’s and Henry’s forces. Richard held the crest of Ambion Hill with Henry at the bottom in more marshy land. When Henry’s men charged up the hill, they sustained heavy casualties. However, Henry had recruited long bow men while in Wales and these inflicted equally severe wounds on the forces of Richard as being at the top of a hill did not protect them from a deluge of long bow arrows.
Though there are no contemporary accounts of the battle, it is generally accepted that it lasted about two to three hours. Casualties on both sides were heavy. What turned the battle seems to have been a decision made by Richard III to target Henry himself. Henry was seen making a move to where Lord Stanley was almost certainly with the intent to urge Stanley to use his forces on Henry’s side. With some trusted men Richard charged at Henry. He nearly succeeded in getting to Henry, and Tudor’s standard bearer, William Brandon, who was very near his leader, was killed. However, Henry’s bodyguards closed ranks and the future king was saved.
For the duration of the battle, the forces of the Stanley family had stood by the sides – therefore fulfilling what Richard believed - but at this critical moment the army of Sir William Stanley attacked Richard, seemingly coming to the aid of Henry. Richard was killed and his forces broke up and fled. Lord Stanley picked up the slain Richard’s crown and placed it on Henry’s head. Richard’s body was put over a mule and taken to Leicester to be buried. The defeat of Richard ended the reign of the Plantagenet’s and introduced the reign of the Tudors. By marrying Elizabeth of York, Henry unified both houses of Lancaster and York.
NOTE: Margaret Beaufort was not at the Battle.
Favourite Screen Costumes || Catherine’s execution gown (The Tudors : 4x05 - The Bottom of the Pot)
Costumes by: Joan Bergin
܀ history meme :: and then some ܀ ladies [4/?] Emma of Normandy (c. 985 – 6 March 1052)
↳ Queen of England, Denmark and Norway
Daughter of Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy, and his wife Gunnora, Emma became twice Queen of England through her first marriage to Æthelred the Unready and then Cnut the Great (with whom she subsequently became Queen of Denmark and Norway). By Æthelred, she had Edward the Confessor, Alfred and a daughter called Goda and with Cnut she had Harthacnut and Gunhilda, and she became a particularly prominent figure during the reigns of her sons.
After the death of Cnut, Emma supported her son Harthacnut when Cnut’s son with his first wife, Harold, became king. He had Emma and her sons sent into exile where Emma planned with her son an invasion to put him on the throne. However, after a short and brutish reign, Harold died and Harthacnut became king of England. Emma had an active role in governing the state until Edward was called back from exile by his brother and subsequently took over when Harthacnut died. The relationship Edward had with his mother has been noted by chroniclers as strained and that Edward had little affection for her as she preferred her children by Cnut. In one instance, Edward stripped his mother of her property only to have it restored to her after at influence of bishops that were loyal to Emma. She died during Edward’s reign and was buried at Winchester Cathedral.
Apart from her children, another part of her legacy was the Encomium Emmae Reginae which was commissioned by Emma and focuses upon her life with Cnut and the rise of her sons. Biased as it is, it offers insight how it was used as a political tool and to the practices and shaping of early medieval queenship.
this is my destiny: to put my son on the throne of england, and those who laughed at my visions and doubted my vocation will call me my lady, the king’s mother. i shall sign myself margaret regina, margaret the queen.
22 August 1485: Henry Tudor and his Lancastrian forces defeats Richard III’s Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field and ends the War of Roses.
Historic Black and White Pictures Restored in Color
- Women Delivering Ice, 1918
- Times Square, 1947
- Portrait Used to Design the Penny. President Lincoln Meets General McClellan – Antietam, Maryland ca September 1862
- Marilyn Monroe, 1957
- Newspaper boy Ned Parfett sells copies of the evening paper bearing news of Titanic’s sinking the night before. (April 16, 1912)
- Easter Eggs for Hitler, c 1944-1945
- Sergeant George Camblair practicing with a gas mask in a smokescreen – Fort Belvoir, Virginia, 1942
- Helen Keller meeting Charlie Chaplin in 1919
- Painting WWII Propaganda Posters, Port Washington, New York – 8 July 1942
- Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge ca 1935
This is awesome.
Not something I’d typically reblog but I like.
Just as in life, we are no better in paintings.
women in history ♦ amelia earhart
born july 24, 1897 in atchison, kansas — disappeared july 2, 1937
Amelia Mary Earhart, fondly known as “Lady Lindy,” spent her childhood with her grandparents in an upper-middle class household. She became, after deciding to do so after a ten-minute flight in 1920, the 16th woman to be issued a pilot’s license in 1923. She had several notable flights, becoming the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1928, as well as the first person to fly over both the Atlantic and Pacific. She wrote books about her flying experiences, helped forming an organization for female pilots, The Ninety-Nines, became a faculty member at Purdue University to counsel women on careers and was a member of the National Women’s Party.
In 1937, she mysteriously disappeared while trying to circumnavigate the globe from the equator. Since then, several theories have formed regarding Earhart’s last days, many of which have been connected to various artifacts that have been found on Pacific islands. Earhart was legally declared dead in 1939.
AGRA: In an interesting discovery following excavations carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India recently, remains of a summer palace, presumably a baradari, a pavilion designed to allow free flow of air - have been reportedly found at the centuries-old Mughal-era garden Mehtab Bagh located opposite the Taj Mahal.
The garden was reputedly Shah Jahan’s favourite spot which he used to visit to get a view of the Taj at night, hence it’s name (Mehtab means moonlight in Urdu).
"The remains of the baradari-like structure have been found just opposite the Taj Mahal which strengthens our belief that the Mughal emperor must have built this place to enjoy the view of the Taj sitting near the bank of river. Read more.